25 February, 2011

African Swine Fever, Meningitis C, Measles, and more Infectious Disease News from Around the Globe

African Swine Fever in Ukraine
Ukraine is hoping to prevent an outbreak of African swine fever. "[Across the border] in Russia. . . the epidemic of the disease is already out of control.” Ukraine is taking preventative measures to avoid the spread of the disease.  All pigs will be vaccinated, and meat markets will be closed. In the coming days, residents of neighboring villages must relinquish their pigs for slaughter. As compensation, they will receive 75 rubles per kilogram of body weight.

На сегодняшний день Украина находится под угрозой африканской чумы свиней.  «В России, практически на границе с Украиной, эпидемия этого заболевания уже вышла из-под контроля. Cоответствующие службы из регионов, находящихся в зоне риска, должны принять профилактические меры для предупреждения распространения заболевания по территории Украины и провести вакцинация всего поголовья свиней. Кроме того, устранить места стихийной торговли мясными продуктами, а также определить специальные места для проведения забоя свиней, если заболевание проявится на территории Украины.

Meningitis C in France
France is launching a vaccination campaign, aimed at students, due to the increase in Meningitis C cases in Lille.  Though the case count in the general population is still low (0.36 per 100 000), the student population is facing a higher and more serious case count (7 per 100 000).  France feels there is a great need for the campaign as 10% of meningitis C cases are fatal.

La France lance une campagne de vaccination contre la méningite C.  La campagne est visée aux étudiants universitaires à cause de l’augmentation des cas de méningite C a l’Université de Lille.  Pendant que le taux pour la population générale reste plutôt bas, a 0.36 cas pour 100 000, la population étudiante a 7 cas pour 100 000, ce qui est plutôt sérieux.  

Enteroccocus at University Hospital Vaudois, Switzerland
Vancomycine resistant enteroccocus has been found at the University Hospital Vaudois in Lausanne, Switzerland.  All patients, confirmed or suspected of carrying enteroccocus have been grouped together on the 15th floor, which is no longer taking admissions. Enteroccoci are gram-positive bacteria that can cause urinary tract infections, bacterial endocarditis and meningitis.

Le Centre Hospitalier Université Vaudois est touché par entérocoques résistant à la Vancomycine.  Tous les patients qui sont suspects ou bien porteurs de l’entérocoques sont réunis sur le 15ème étage pour une durée indéterminée. L’entérocoques est une bactérie anaérobie qui peut provoquer les infections du canal urinaire, l’endocardite et la méningite.  

Measles in Geneva, Switzerland and Rhônes-Alpes, France
Twenty-six cases of measles have been identified since January 2011.  This is the biggest outbreak of measles in the canton of Geneva since 2008.  The majority of cases in Switzerland and in the neighboring French region are adults who have not been vaccinated.

Dans le canton de Genève, 26 cas de rougeole se sont identifiés depuis janvier 2011.  Ceci est la plus grande flambée de rougeole depuis 2008.  La plupart de cas sont les adultes qui n’ont pas été vacciné contre le rougeole.  

Avian Influenza Update: Bangladesh (poultry), India (ducks), Cambodia (humans), Indonesia (poultry and human) and Vietnam (poultry; human case ruled out)
In addition to the ongoing outbreaks of avian influenza in South Korea and Japan, three other Asian countries reported outbreaks.  In Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 8,600 chickens were culled as outbreaks continue to be detected around Dhaka and Rangpur.  India confirmed an outbreak in Agartala, Tripura leading to the culling of 3,000 ducks.  It is India’s first outbreak since June 2010.

Cambodia recorded two human deaths last week as doctors worry about the possibility of an outbreak.  WHO has not yet confirmed the recent deaths, but a five-year-old girl died there earlier this month.  In Garut, Indonesia, the sudden death of 600 chickens has been attributed to avian influenza.  Additionally, 14 villagers have severe flu symptoms but the cause of their illnesses has not been determined.  In Vietnam, tests have ruled out avian influenza infection after a girl with suspect symptoms died at the Hue Central Hospital. Outbreaks among poultry have been reported in three Vietnamese provinces.

Conjunctivitis Clusters in Brazil
Over the last week over 150 cases of conjunctivitis were reported in the city of Goioerê (located in Parana State), with 52 of those cases occurring over the weekend. At about 29,000 inhabitants the city of Goioerê is considered relatively small and any outbreak of this magnitude is cause for city officials to be alarmed,  and in addition the highly contagious nature of conjunctivitis, the ministry of health is concerned about containing this outbreak. All inhabitants of Goioerê are encouraged to wash their hands frequently, and not to stay in enclosed (non-ventilated) housing with large gatherings of people.

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